This position has been adopted by denominations of Christianity and Judaism in line with modernist theology which views the Bible and Torah as allegorical, thus removing the conflict between evolution and religion.
As a result, evolutionary theory was "both permissible and respectable" by 1876.
For decades the Roman Catholic Church avoided official refutation of evolution.
Lord Kelvin led scientific opposition to gradualism on the basis of his thermodynamic calculations that the Earth was between 24 and 400 million years old, and own views favoured a version of theistic evolution accelerated by divine guidance.
The specific hereditary mechanism Darwin hypothesized of pangenesis that supported gradualism also lacked any supporting evidence and was disputed by the empirical tests of Francis Galton.
Several branches of creationism, including creation science, neo-creationism, and intelligent design, argue that the idea of life being directly designed by a god or intelligence is at least as scientific as evolutionary theory, and should therefore be taught in public education.