The imaging sequence took place over a single orbit and began with a series of 1 s exposures in the F225W filter.In this short exposure time, the flux from the ≈ 5200 K primary was expected to leave an unsaturated, linear response on the CCD.Section 2 describes the imaging and spectroscopic observations, while Section 3 describes the atmospheric modelling, derivation of current (and progenitor) stellar parameters and binary orbit constraints.
About 20 per cent of known extrasolar planets orbit one component of a stellar binary (Haghighipour 2006; Raghavan et al. Both observation and theory indicate that the majority of these planets in binaries are similar to those orbiting single stars, owing to the wide ( planets orbit one component within closer binary systems. Our view of planet formation in binaries has changed significantly in the past 17 yr. These disc masses are comparable to the minimum-mass model of the primordial solar nebula (Weidenschilling 1977; Hayashi 1981) suggesting that planet formation in these environments may proceed as in discs around single stars. At the time of discovery, an additional long-term radial velocity drift was reported, suggesting the presence of a more distant, unseen stellar companion.
In order of discovery, these planetary systems are GJ 86 (HR 637, HD 13445) (Queloz et al. Subsequently, the distant companion was directly detected at a projected separation of 1.7 arcsec, but 9 mag fainter than the primary in the band (Els et al. The companion, GJ 86B, was later imaged by Mugrauer & Neuhäuser (2005) and Lagrange et al.
Because of orbital motion observed between 20 (Mugrauer & Neuhäuser 2005; Lagrange et al.
2006), it was expected that precise spatial offsets might be necessary for proper placement of the faint companion within the spectroscopic aperture.
This ambient light correction resulted in flux measurement changes less than 1.2 per cent for the five filters below 5000 Å, but rose to around 4 per cent for the three longer wavelength filters.